Countering corruption in municipal institutions
Anti-corruption is a set of measures aimed at preventing, detecting or eliminating corruption violations and their causes. In addition, this includes work on the suppression, disclosure of such violations, and minimization of their consequences. These tasks fall within the purview of various federal and regional authorities, public organizations, citizens of the country, as well as individual municipal institutions.
How anti-corruption activities are carried out
Anti-corruption measures are considered the priority area of activity of any legal entity, regardless of its organizational and legal form, industry affiliation, form of ownership.
According to Part 1 of Art. 13.3 Federal Law No. 273 "On Combating Corruption" dated 25.12.2008, the organization is responsible for developing and implementing measures to prevent and combat corruption. At the same time, the authorities of individual regions independently determine the tasks, principles, forms, priority areas of such activities. This work is based on the main directions of the state policy of the Russian Federation in this area, approved by the President of the country.
Any work to combat corruption should be based on key principles, without which it is impossible to create a system of measures to eliminate corruption offenses.
Among the basic principles are the following:
- The organization pursues an anti-corruption policy, taking into account generally accepted norms, the current legislation of the country, namely the Constitution of the Russian Federation, international treaties in which the Russian Federation participates, and other legal acts.
- The management forms an intolerant attitude towards corruption among employees, organizes a system for preventing and combating crime within the organization.
- Employees have full information about the norms of anti-corruption legislation, are actively involved in the development process, implementation of adopted standards, planned measures.
- Activities correspond to the level of threat of potential offenses among the management or employees of the organization.
- Anti-corruption actions are effective, which means they are relatively low cost and simplicity, combined with significant results.
- Any employee of the organization, regardless of his position, merits, length of service, is responsible for the offense committed by him while performing his job duties, which corresponds to the principle of responsibility, inevitability of punishment.
- Anti-corruption standards approved by the organization are open, available to every partner, counterparty, and the public.
All applicable standards and procedures should be regularly monitored and controlled to assess their effectiveness.
How anti-corruption policy is formed
In order to prevent and suppress corruption offenses within a municipal institution, a set of procedures, measures, principles closely interrelated are drawn up and implemented. This is called anti-corruption policy.
The organization usually fixes all information about its anti-corruption policy in a single document, which receives the same name. In order to approve the policy, as well as any measures in this direction, mandatory for all employees, the management must adopt them in the form of local acts.
How the anti-corruption policy is developed and implemented:
- A project is drawn up, discussed by the commission and then approved.
- The content of the adopted document is brought to the attention of employees.
- The policy measures are being implemented.
The applied policy, in the course of its implementation, should be subject to constant review and, if necessary, revised.
Anti-corruption policy depends on the specifics of the organization, working conditions, but the main points that need to be touched on are unchanged and are the same for all municipal institutions. That is, such a policy should reflect the following points:
- for what purposes it is being implemented, what tasks it is designed to solve;
- what terms or concepts are used in it;
- what principles it is designed to implement;
- who is covered by this policy, where it is appropriate to apply it;
- which of the officials is responsible for the execution of the assigned tasks;
- what responsibilities are assigned to each employee to prevent and combat corruption.
At the end, it is necessary to indicate that the policy can be changed or revised if there are grounds for this.
The document necessarily lists the activities, a set of standards, procedures, rules for their implementation. This can be done in the form of a separate document, which indicates the time frame, as well as the persons responsible for its implementation.
How anti-corruption measures are planned
Each year, the head of the organization approves a plan, which includes a set of measures that are interrelated and aimed at solving anti-corruption problems. It also indicates the expected results of the implementation of the planned actions, the executors, the timing of implementation.
Taking into account the set strategic goal of combating corruption, it is important to establish objectives, forms, methods of implementation of individual measures, types of control over their implementation, provide information support, transparency, public relations.
The development of all these points is based on the following principles for planning anti-corruption work:
- independence in planning and execution;
- unity of principles, methods of formation, implementation of activities;
- continuity, continuity, that is, taking into account the results of previous years;
- the concreteness, urgency of each event;
- consistency, balance of the planned activities with each other, with the financial or other resources of the organization;
- effectiveness, efficiency;
- realism, that is, compliance with the capabilities of the organization, its competence, resource provision;
- directiveness, mandatory performance.
The adopted document must be posted on the official website of the institution on the Internet no later than five working days from the date of its approval.
How anti-corruption activities are planned
The complex of planned activities is reflected on paper in the form of a special document, which is approved by the head of the municipal institution after its discussion by a special commission.
The following are involved in the development of the document:
- Head of the organization. He carries out the general management of the planning process, approves the terms, the procedure for development (adjustments), conditions for monitoring, control, reporting, and also approves reports.
- The chairman of the anti-corruption commission organizes work on the formation (adjustment) of the list of planned activities, prepares proposals for adjustment for the head.
- Persons responsible for the implementation of anti-corruption policy and anti-corruption measures determine the list of measures, carry out coordination, coordinate work with other planning participants.
- The heads of the structural units provide the management with proposals for anti-corruption measures.
- The rest of the employees prepare proposals for possible activities for the manager.
The draft document is formed on the basis of written proposals received at the time of its correction or development. Events are grouped in several main areas:
- implementation of anti-corruption measures provided for by the legislation of the Russian Federation;
- propaganda, education, anti-corruption training;
- joint activities with local government bodies, government authorities, law enforcement agencies, public organizations.
The persons responsible for each planned activity must be notified of this within ten days after the document is approved.
Corruption offenses threaten the integrity and effectiveness of state power at all levels, destroy the rule of law, undermine the foundations of the state and people's trust in the authorities. Therefore, the prevention and suppression of all illegal acts is assigned an important role. Work in this direction is carried out at all levels of government, each organization independently plans and implements measures to prevent corruption offenses, taking into account the legislation of the Russian Federation.