Information security hardware and software

 
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With the development of computer technology, the protection of information that is stored, processed and sent in electronic form is becoming increasingly important. Leakage of classified information can lead to the ruin of the enterprise, loss of reputation and more dangerous consequences. Therefore, information security requires the use of more and more complex technical means, as well as computer programs.

Software protection tools

Their advantages are versatility and efficiency of use.

These tools include:

1. Antivirus programs capable of "curing" or destroying files damaged by computer viruses, protecting electronic devices and information systems from infection;
Built-in information security tools. They control access to the information network. Their task is to study registration data, create passwords to identify remote users. They register unsuccessful attempts to enter the operating system and, in suspicious cases, block access;

2. Programs for encrypting classified data and preventing unauthorized study and processing of information;

3. Firewalls - firewalls or firewalls. Screening programs that monitor the operation of a PC in an electronic network. They filter out resources with malicious content, block sites that distract employees from work;

4. Proxy servers (intermediaries in the transfer of information from a computer to an electronic network). Such programs restrict access to certain websites, making it impossible to transfer personal information from a work computer. They help to protect the information system from certain types of hacker attacks;

5. Virtual private networks (VPN). Designed to transmit confidential information in encrypted form to a narrow circle of people within the public network;

6. DLP systems. Installing such security measures helps prevent the leakage of sensitive information outside the corporate network. In this case, computer technologies are used to analyze information transmitted through an information network;

7. SIEM systems for monitoring and managing information security. They analyze threats that are detected by antiviruses and other programs. Potential violations can also be reported from firewalls. Monitoring results are recorded in special logs to assess potential threats, identify cyberattacks and security failures.

With the help of software, 24-hour administrative, logical and physical control of information security is carried out.

Administrative control concerns compliance with regulations and procedures related to the protection of confidential information.

Logical control allows using technical means to assess the effectiveness of the use of software and the adopted system of access to classified materials.

Physical control of information security consists in checking compliance with the rules for storing and computer processing of information, as well as fire safety conditions. Software methods are used in this case to control the operation of video equipment and alarm systems. With the help of such tools, it is checked for the presence of electronic locks and other devices to restrict access to classified data and software.

What tasks are solved using computer programs

The main purpose of such information security tools is:

  • prevention of unauthorized access (NSD) to classified information;
  • copy protection;
  • creation of conditions for the impossibility of their destruction;
  • prevention of infection of computers and programs with viruses;
  • protection of communication channels from unauthorized entry.

The use of software should not lead to a violation of the availability, integrity and confidentiality of information.

Availability means the ability to seamlessly share the required data with trusted individuals. The use of such protective equipment should not create obstacles for employees to perform their official duties.

Integrity. The information must be stored and transmitted in an undistorted form.

Confidentiality. The disclosure of personal information, commercial or state secrets should be excluded.

Controlling the use of programs, as well as methods of ensuring security, plays an important role.

Types of information threats and countermeasures

Threats are divided into the following types:

  1. Internal. They are hidden within the system itself, associated with the carelessness and incompetence of employees when working with confidential data. The threat is also posed by non-observance of official ethics, neglect of the rules for keeping secret documents and means of safe work;
  2. External - coming from outside sources and from people who do not work in this organization;
  3. Natural (independent of the will of man, for example, natural disasters, fires);
  4. Artificial (created by people). Such threats can be deliberate (hacker attacks, illegal actions by competitors, sabotage by team members out of revenge). They can also be created unintentionally (through carelessness or ignorance of the rules for working with security programs);
  5. Passive. They do not affect the overall structure of the protection system and do not distort confidential information;
  6. Active - associated with the use of malware and violation of the principle of integrity.

The main threats to information security breach include unauthorized access, copying of secret data, their damage or destruction. The risk of the implementation of threats increases due to the introduction of fraudulent virus programs, weak security of communication channels through which classified information is transmitted.

Various methods are used to eliminate threats:

  1. The software is installed with the functions of automatic blocking of illegal actions in the system. It is considered a means of self-defense;
  2. The software is used as part of the computing system. They are designed to protect computer equipment and electronic media in the process of connecting new equipment, checking and configuring the system;
  3. To enter the system, use means with a request for information - programs for additional identification of employees by entering personal information.

Information protection is carried out by active and passive methods.

Active information protection tools are activated when the password is entered incorrectly, when an attempt is made to enter the information system without permission, and the time is set incorrectly on the computer. Passive protection measures are aimed at identifying threats, searching for specific evidence and perpetrators of security violations.

Protection against tampering

In order to prevent the possibility of unauthorized entry into the information system, identification, user authentication and restriction of their access to the system are used. Information that is not directly related to the work of a particular employee is blocked or encrypted.

For identification (personal identification), passwords of varying complexity are used, answers to questions agreed with the network administrator. Identification can be carried out using secret keys, magnetic cards and other methods. A person's identity is also confirmed by the sound of the voice and fingerprints.

During authentication (confirmation of the authenticity of personal data), secret passwords, keys and ciphers are used.

Copy protection

To avoid copying confidential materials, identification of the person involved in the processing of information is carried out, as well as the authentication of the source of information and the place of its departure. The program records all the facts of the allowed entry into the system. She reports on attempts of unauthorized processing of confidential data or the study of algorithms for technical and computer protection.

Information security technical means

The methods of technical protection include the use of electronic and electrical devices that block access to confidential information.

Some of the means (for example, sound and light alarms, video equipment, locks for inserting magnetic cards) are designed to prevent intruders from entering computer rooms and storage of classified materials and to ensure the protection of personnel.

Other means are used to mask communication channels and prevent information leakage. These include acoustic, optical, monitoring and identification devices. Equipment is also used to identify channels of leakage of classified information and search for technical devices installed by cybercriminals in order to intercept information.

Silencers, devices for creating sound interference, as well as equipment for preventing the recording of secret messages on dictaphones are used as acoustic protection means. Such protection helps to prevent eavesdropping of classified information, as well as its copying by electronic acoustic devices.

Visual-optical devices are designed to create light interference, optical imitations, reduce the illumination of sources of classified information. Such methods prevent photographing of secret objects, visual copying of information.

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Protecting confidential information with software and hardware is becoming increasingly important. The prosperity of business, material well-being and reputation of companies, security of the state depend on its organization.

The use of special computer programs and technical devices makes it possible to detect threats to information security, to reveal information leakage channels. Such means of protection are designed to reduce the risks of virus infection of computers, theft of electronic media, copying and destruction of classified materials. When using software and hardware security methods, it is necessary to observe the principles of accessibility, integrity and confidentiality of information. It is important to keep your software up to date in order to anticipate and neutralize the actions of intruders.

17.12.2020