Personal data of minors
In the age of rapid development of information technologies, personal information of people is increasingly amenable to publicity, is put on public display, in general, becomes available to everyone. Social networks, which have become a favorite place for virtual pastime, store full-fledged user files in archives.
But if an adult is selective about which personal data should be disclosed and which should be kept with them, then minors and children are often naive and willingly share personal information online.
What concerns the personal data of children
Very often, parents ask themselves when, where and in what form information about their child can be used. Indeed, even when entering an educational institution (school), parents receive an agreement document, where they indicate their written consent to the processing of the child's personal data.
You should understand what this information is. Many people do not know that some information organizations are not allowed to use. According to the Federal Law "On Personal Data", personal data is any information indirectly or directly related to an individual (an object of personal data).
Simply put, these are data that allow you to identify and create a general characteristic of the subject (citizen).
There are three types of personal information:
- general - it includes the surname, name, patronymic, information about education, actual place of residence and registration, as well as place of work and salary (for persons over 16 years old);
- special - information that makes it possible to compile a complete description of the person (gender and race, political views, religious beliefs, as well as medical certificates about the state of health);
- biometric - materials of a biological nature for human identification (DNA, fingerprints, retina, height, weight, as well as photo and video images).
The use of this information is permitted only if there is a written consent of the person.
To give consent to processing means to allow the operator to collect information, store it, process it, distribute, clarify, use, extract, transfer access, block or delete.
Each school institution has a special document that describes the personal data of students. In addition, the MA must have a package of documents in which persons who have access to PD are indicated with a description of their rights and obligations.
Thus, the student's personal data is information:
- specified in the birth certificate or passport (if the child is over 14 years old);
- from the student's personal file;
- from a cool magazine;
- from the student's medical record;
- document of registered place of residence;
- photos of the child.
Information of a more personal nature, such as certificates of family composition, family relationships, certificates of disability, orphanhood, single parent families, etc., which may be required by the school administration in connection with the upbringing and education of the child, can be obtained only if one from parents or legal representatives will write consent. Such data cannot be used for personal purposes.
Also, parents should know who has the right to use personal data of minors:
- employees of the State Department of Education, if they have the authority to do so;
- director and secretary of the educational institution;
- medical workers;
- deputy directors for teaching and educational work;
- classroom teacher.
It should be noted that if a parent is deprived of parental rights for any reason, he / she does not have the ability to access the personal information of the child (if such a court order has already entered into force).
Persons who have been granted the right to access the personal information of a minor must without fail:
- under no circumstances distribute this data to third parties without the written permission of the parents. The exceptions are cases when it is required by federal laws;
- ensure the protection of personal data of minors from unauthorized use, loss;
- use only that personal information that is obtained specifically from the subject or from his parents;
- provide parents with a set of rules to familiarize themselves with their rights and obligations, as well as an agreement on data processing;
- in case of changes in the data - to make changes to the existing records at the written request of the parent;
- when providing confidential data to authorized civil servants, be limited only to specifically requested information;
- provide an opportunity for a minor (student) to access his personal data and obtain copies of them;
- receive information about the child's health only from his parents / guardians;
- at the request of one of the parents / guardians - provide in full information about the student's personal data (about its storage, processing).
How can a parent limit the information provided about a child?
First of all, it is necessary to fill out and submit an application for consent to the processing of personal data in writing, and then, in a free form (in writing), you will have to give consent. This document is legal, and in case of non-fulfillment or violation of the approved powers by the operator, the parent will be able to file a lawsuit.
However, this document is not an obligation, but just a right. Accordingly, no one can force them to fill out a consent, and even more so to refuse services on this basis (for example, not to be admitted to a kindergarten or school).
How to protect a minor child from collecting "unnecessary" data?
For this, the form described above is created. It should consist of:
- surname, first name, patronymic of the applicant, his passport data;
- surname, name, patronymic of the object, given from its birth certificate;
- if the child is over 14 years old - his passport data;
- the purpose of collecting this information;
- all data about the child that will be used;
- the validity period of this paper;
- a list of actions that can be performed with the received data.
At the end of this questionnaire, the date of compilation must be indicated and the applicant (parent / guardian) signature with initials is put.
Consider a consent form using the example of a school. The educational institution collects almost all confidential data about a minor - information about health, gender and race, religious beliefs. And this happens after the moment when the parent or legal representative of the child signs the standard form issued by the institution.
The bottom line is that all this information is not necessary for the school, it can be omitted. Just for this, the above paper is compiled. It indicates only name, age, place of residence and gender. This will be enough.
But that's not all. The institution will still be able to obtain information, for example, about the composition of the family, since the data is collected and structured from time to time. To prevent this from happening, parents should draw up a document approximately the following sample:
Online data protection
Raising the topic raised at the beginning of the article, it is worth noting that this problem exists, and its scale is large. Various services on the Web collect and store such huge amounts of information about users that it is sometimes difficult to imagine. Recently, there have been cases of scandals on this basis.
Often, adults are aware that any actions, words and requests on the Internet, not to mention the questionnaires on social networks, will certainly be "credited" in a virtual profile about a person. But a minor, and even more so a child, perceives the Internet as something entertainment, a game, thereby acting on the Internet as he wants.
In order to avoid collecting information about the child on the Internet, parents are obliged to conduct an explanatory conversation with their children.
For example, it is worth explaining to children that the Network is a public place, where there is also a danger of meeting and dialogue with strangers and ill-wishers.
You should definitely tell your child that it is strictly forbidden to post information about yourself and your family, to provide someone with contact information (phone numbers, places of study, work). Personal photos should also not be uploaded to public resources. Alternatively, you can complete social media accounts with your child.
In addition to all this, you should install antivirus programs on your PC, select the "Parental Control" mode in the computer settings, block potentially unwanted sites in your browser, leaving only allowed ones. And, of course, from time to time to hold conversations with the child about the dangers of disclosing personal data and remind him of the rules of communication on the Internet.