Specificities of time tracking
The aspect of time attendance is taken into account by all enterprises, since such indicators as depend on it:
- productivity of employees (less time wasted on solving personal issues);
- rational distribution of the volume of work performed (without overloading employees);
- staff salaries (calculated strictly in proportion to the amount of work performed);
- labor discipline of the team;
- profitability of the company (labor efficiency increases when accounting for working hours);
- normalization or flexibility of the schedule (the number of shifts or hours is documented).
A whole article of the Labor Code of the state is devoted to working time (in the Russian Federation this is the fourth article). Working, or labor, time is the period of performance of the labor duties of a team member, taking into account the internal regulations and requirements that are described in the employment contract.
There is a standard that all businesses must adhere to; working hours should not exceed 40 hours per week. These figures and calculations have been analyzed by the Ministry of Health and Social Development, that is, if a week of work is 40 hours, then a day is supposed to work no more than 8 hours. And for certain positions and specialties, part-time or irregular working hours are established.
The mode of operation of each company can be chosen independently, taking into account the specifics of the activity and generally accepted norms. All nuances of working time should be documented, in particular shortened working hours, length of the working week and shifts.
It is important to create a rational instruction on the use of working time for each position. It is important to take into account the nuances in the form:
- human factor (individual characteristics of each employee);
- force majeure.
The documents do not take into account the tendency of staff to organize frequent breaks of up to 5 minutes, being late for work, using working hours to solve personal problems, as well as other factors affecting the volume and quality of the work done.
It is important to consider the absence of employees due to illness or emergencies in the company. There are cases of delay in picking, which is required to complete the work, or the lack of necessary information prevents the solution of the problem. This significantly slows down the process of performing work and reduces the desired volume, which leads to imbalances between the real costs of wages and the work performed. A competent time tracking will help you build a strategy and take into account all conditions.
Accounting for hours worked can eliminate problems such as:
- Being late to work, playing games and chatting in social networks at the workplace, frequent coffee breaks.
- Low quality of work and unproductiveness of employees for a long time.
- Inflated wages (payment for time when work is not done through the fault of the employee or third parties, outside factors).
Documentation for competent accounting of working hours
To comply with the norms of labor legislation of the Russian Federation, you should keep a careful record of working hours. There are standards and procedures for maintaining this indicator, they are enshrined in the following documents or local acts agreed with the Labor Code:
- Working day rules.
- An agreement that is drawn up collectively.
- Agreement between the parties on mutual cooperation.
All indicators, including the length of the working day, the time between rest and work, the total working time per week, must be indicated in these documents. When signing the contract, a new employee should pay attention to the standards and schedules so that later there will be no misunderstandings.
The company must also keep a daily report, which indicates the amount of hours worked, taking into account unforeseen situations. For this, a special document has been created - a timesheet of exits, where it is recorded:
- number of night shifts;
- the number of overtime;
- employee sick leave;
- weekend staff (number or time);
- business trips of employees;
- features associated with normal working periods during the day.
In order not to record everything that happens, enterprises can opt for a special form with the name of the Regulation, which also fixes working time, its features and components of labor. In it, you can calculate the loss of working time.
Working time accounting methods
According to the legislation, there are three types of staff time tracking:
Each organization has the right to choose its own way of recording time in connection with individual characteristics, but so that the system is fixed by law.
The method is used in organizations whose work schedule represents the same duration of shifts daily, in order to fix the hours worked and to avoid overwork. The same labor shift is established for all personnel, and control over the excess of the established norm is carried out.
Daily accounting of wages is used in relation to employees who have a set of benefits and are guided by Article 94 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation. For them, there is an individual length of the day shift. These include:
- Minor workers: time is allocated in the amount of 5 hours under 16 years old and 7 hours under 18 years old for the daily volume of work. If children are studying at a university, then the established rate is divided in half.
- People with disabilities. The load is taken into account in accordance with the indications of doctors and rehabilitation therapists, depending on the stage of recovery or the degree of manifestation of the disease.
- Creative workers and athletes have a reduced workload due to irregular work schedules.
For a number of circumstances, an employee can be assigned a reduced work shift on an individual basis at the enterprise. Therefore, it is important for such workers to organize a daily work record.
Weekly accounting method
This method of accounting for working hours is established in companies whose personnel have different length of shifts during the week. For example, in an organization that works on a flexible schedule, it is recommended to maintain the document on a weekly basis due to adjustments in the length of shifts. As a result, the work shift per week should not exceed the 40-hour standards for recording working hours.
And it is also important to use this method if employees have fragmented shifts, while it is important not to lose and indicate all working hours in the accounting and documents, to exclude shortcomings or overwork of the employee. As a result, it is important to fit into the norm.
Summarized way of recording working hours
This method of recording working time is officially enshrined in article 104 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation. It is used in cases where the company cannot keep track of working hours in previous ways (daily or weekly).
Therefore, the law provides for such a way to summarize hours worked for a longer period. But this indicator should still not exceed the standards. For example, there are firms that work around the clock, including day and night shifts, and the 40-hour week cannot be recorded. Therefore, they can use quarterly indicators or semi-annual norms, taking into account their implementation.
This method of recording working hours is used in the case of a rolling schedule of employment. It involves going to work at different times and days of the week. All conditions must be carefully spelled out in local acts and, again, fit into the norm of a 40-hour week. For employers who do not comply with these conditions, there is an established administrative liability.
Who can work part-time?
Reduced working hours apply to the following population categories:
- Children under 16 - Limited to 24 hours a week.
- Teenagers from 16 to 18 years old. Their rate increases over time to 35 hours per week. The same indicators apply to disabled people of the first and second groups.
- People working in hazardous or hazardous working conditions can perform duties 36 hours a week.
Part-time work should be negotiated in advance between the manager and the subordinate at the stage of signing the contract and indicated in the records. The duty to keep records of part-time work rests with the employer only in relation to such groups of the population as:
- pregnant women;
- parent of a child under 14;
- parent of a disabled minor child;
- people who are caring for a sick relative (according to a medical opinion).
Part-time work can be set at discretion, for example, part-time (shortened) or part-time work week (exits a day every other day or a day after two). Such a schedule should not affect the labor rights of the team member and the duration of his vacation. Payment for the work performed is made in proportion to the amount of work done.
Methods of recording the working time of personnel in the organization
The use of any of the methods of tracking working time and taking into account the work performed is impossible without understanding and taking into account the following aspects:
- The specifics of employment in the company and working hours.
- Discipline of the team.
- The financial condition of the company.
- Corporate ethics.
- The ratio of costs for each employee and his productivity.
Depending on the personal aspects of the activity and work in the team, as well as the attitude to work of the employees themselves, their motivation and requirements for the quality of work, the manager can use the following methods to help organize the accounting of working time in the company:
- Establishing access control for working hours using accounting equipment, hiring a guard or watchman, keeping a log of the arrival of employees and their departure. Automated control of working hours is a technique that involves the installation of a terminal or turnstile, wicket. This will require a controller for the system and its health, a computer and software. This method will allow you to find out information about smoke breaks, absences of workers. Additionally, a time sheet is kept in the form of T-13. The advantages lie in the accuracy and objectivity of recording the set time.
- A biometric time attendance and access device is the most expensive time tracking method. It can read employee information by scanning a fingerprint and record working hours. Organize attendance control, delegate this function to the head of department, or personally control the time tracking.
- Shifting responsibility for the time of arrival on the employees themselves and control over these indicators using daily reports on the work done (if the manager has enough time to study the reports).
- Use of scanners or access cards to computers and other equipment. They notify the boss of the arrival of employees to work and the beginning of their work duties. You can install such scanners on the office door. The program with the help of the controller records all data and events occurring in the enterprise. Information is stored for a long time in the database, and you can generate reports for a long time.
- Technological equipment of parking lots. If the company has a large territory and a large staff of employees, it can install special parking systems on which the car number or other employee data will be recorded at the entrance. This will resolve the issue with the entry and exit of vehicles, parking spaces and arrival time. You can hire a special person to record the arrival of an employee, or install a terminal for reading cards. The software allows you to identify a person by a remote control, with which the parking barrier opens. The disadvantage of this method is that it does not take into account the path from the parking lot to the workplace and the employee's smoke breaks with coffee breaks.
- Using video cameras to track the time spent by employees in the workplace. Cameras are installed either on personal computers or around the office as a whole. They must be used with caution, as the presence of total control can negatively affect the work environment and reduce the motivation of workers.
All these methods require additional costs, but they are able to provide the most objective information and competently keep track of working hours. They are used in cases where there is a large staff of workers who cannot be physically controlled by one person. The costs associated with the purchase of equipment for time tracking will pay off due to increased staff efficiency and increased profits for the company.
DLP systems successfully perform the task of controlling working time.
Time and attendance documentation
In addition to mechanical and technical methods that help managers more, it is important to complete all documents and regulations related to reporting and time.
There is a certain document that is established by Goskomstat No. 1, it is called a timesheet. The execution of this resolution should be carried out in accordance with the norms of Article 91 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation at all enterprises without exception, regardless of the form of ownership of the company.
Accounting for the working time of personnel in accordance with the law implies the maintenance of a timesheet, the form of which is approved by the Resolution of the State Statistics Committee No. 1 and the registration of which must be carried out in accordance with the norms of Art. 91 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation at all enterprises, regardless of ownership.
There are special accounting schedules, which indicate the time of work. They are filled in manually or automatically. There is special software that automates the process.
The form of the schedule itself for recording working hours was also established in 2004. The timesheet can be generated in Excel and filled in independently. It consists of several parts-modules:
- The name of the company must be indicated at the top of the table.
- The following columns are "Date of compilation" and "Serial number of the timesheet".
- The "Reporting period" column must be filled with the dates of the current month, day by day.
- The next column is filled with sequential numbers.
- In the next column, the full name of the employee is entered, as well as his position.
- Column 4 should contain data on the employee's absence from work for a specified reason or without specifying reasons.
- The next two columns need to be filled in with information indicating the amount of work performed and hours worked.
- The next two columns are populated with payroll data with the code and wage type.
- The last column is devoted to indicating the reasons for absenteeism of workers.
Working time documentation must be certified by the signatures of employees, a personnel specialist and the head of the department. Inaccuracies or errors in the document must not be allowed, since it is accountable, and the wages of workers at the established rate directly depend on this paper.
Rules for maintaining documents
Keeping a time sheet is mandatory for everyone, it is a daily document. Regardless of the clarity of the company's plans, emergency situations occur at work that require documentary confirmation. In state institutions, such papers are constantly checked.
Typically, this documentation is maintained by hand. You can entrust the maintenance of the timesheet to a responsible employee or a worker from the HR department. If the company has a huge staff of staff, then the preference is given to an electronic time tracking system. The received data are summarized at the end of the working day or at another time specified by the local act.
After filling out, the report card is sent to the settlement department, where payment is calculated in accordance with the hours worked. If increased control of working time is required, then both forms are used: paper and electronic. This eliminates human error and protects the company from an electronic failure.
- Who should fill out the timesheets?
Any employee may be responsible for maintaining time records. This is included in the number of both direct and additional obligations and is stipulated in the contract.
This procedure for recording working hours can be regarded as an additional duty of the employee, and then it is included at the time the order is issued. The head of the company selects a responsible person from the staff, issues an order based on local acts, and the worker is obliged to execute it. It is advisable to negotiate such a development of events with the worker in advance, since refusal to comply with the order may be a reason for dismissal. You can stimulate the employee financially and pay for additional work. The method is applicable if the company has a small staff.
Sometimes in large organizations a special person is hired for the position of timekeeper for recording the established working hours. The staffing unit of the normalizer or timekeeper must carefully fulfill its duties, keep track of working hours and monitor the correctness of the information submitted. The personnel officer and the head of the department also participate in the accounting, regardless of who fills out the timesheet.
- What to do in case of violations of reporting on working hours?
The essence of the timesheet maintenance process is that it is part of the employee's duties, and is not done at will. Therefore, the persons involved in the execution of documents, in the event of errors or entering deliberately false information, fall under administrative responsibility. This also applies when the company does not own the time tracking at all. The established responsibility rests with the head of the enterprise.
According to article 5.27 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation, a company that violates the Labor Code is subject to punishment in the form of fines. For the first time, the amount of the fine is 50 thousand rubles. Repeated violation of this article will incur heavy fines.
At the end of the established working time period, according to which the salary is calculated, the employee's working time is summed up and the additional payment for night outings indicated in the accounting is taken into account.
Accounting for working hours can be carried out in different ways and methods, with the use of technical means or without them. But it is important to remember that the process not only leads to the prosperity of the company and the increase in productivity, but also falls under the articles of the law. It is important not to neglect the internal regulations and the Labor Code, to secure yourself in advance from claims and litigation and to keep records correctly.